Data on cervical spine injuries resulting from participation in football have been compiled by a national registry. Analysis of epidemiologic data and cinematographic documentation clearly demonstrated that the majority of cervical fractures and dislocations were due to axial loading. On the basis of this observation, rule changes banning both deliberate "spearing" and the use of the top of the helmet as the initial point of contact in making a tackle were implemented at the high school and college level. Subsequently, a marked decrease in cervical spine injury rates has occurred. The occurrence of permanent cervical quadriplegia decreased from 34 in 1976 to five in the 1984 season. It is suggested that axial loading of the cervical spine is also responsible for the catastrophic injuries in diving, rugby, ice hockey, and gymnastics. Implementation of appropriate changes in playing techniques and/or equipment modifications could possibly reduce the incidence of cervical spine injuries in these activities.
Torg JS, Vegso JJ, Sennett B, Das M. The National Football Head and Neck Injury Registry: 14-Year Report on Cervical Quadriplegia, 1971 Through 1984. JAMA. 1985;254(24):3439–3443. doi:10.1001/jama.1985.03360240051033
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