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December 24, 1997

Effective Retinal Diagnosis: The Easy Way to Learn Ophthalmoscopy, Part 1: Introduction to Retinal Findings, Part 2: Disorders of the Optic Disc, Part 3: Hypertension

Author Affiliations

Veterans Affairs Hospital Hines, Ill Loyola University Medical Center Maywood, Ill

JAMA. 1997;278(24):2196. doi:10.1001/jama.1997.03550240088051

This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables.


This video series is billed as a "unique guide to basic ophthalmoscopy." Part 1, Introduction to Retinal Findings, is about 23 minutes long and presents (1) correct ophthalmoscopic technique, (2) an overview of the optic disc, retinal vessels and background, and macula, (3) common abnormalities, and (4) common normal variants. Part 2, Disorders of the Optic Disc (21 minutes), describes optic disc anomalies in more detail. Part 3, Hypertension (15 minutes), describes the various presenting signs of hypertensive retinopathy. Parts 4A and 4B, a two-part series on the retinal findings seen in diabetes mellitus was not available for review. In addition to the prices given above, the five-video package is priced at $1495. Medical Media Systems intends to publish seven additional videos on basic ophthalmoscopy.

The videos are designed to demonstrate the actual findings that one would view when performing direct ophthalmoscopy on a patient. When necessary, illustrations relate the