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The treatment of chronic pleuritis with suppuration was very unsatisfactory, and the patients generally died with exhaustion which was termed consumption, until modern surgery offered means of relief. For many years after surgeons ventured to perform para centicis thoracis for the relief of this class of cases, it was considered absolutely necessary that no air be allowed to enter the pleural cavity, and the ingenuity of the profession was taxed to devise instruments which would entirely exclude this agent. And even after bolder operations were undertaken it was deemed unadvisable to allow air to enter the opening. It is now known that the entrance of air into the pleural cavity mav be attended by no unpleasant results.
The operation which it is the object of this article to describe, has been slowly developed during the last quarter of a century. All the cases recorded, as far as I am aware,
CARTER JMG. THE USE OF THE TREPHINE IN CHRONIC PLEURITIS. JAMA. 1883;I(8):242–243. doi:10.1001/jama.1883.02390080018001f
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