When the urine accumulates slowly in the kidneys, either because of some obstacle in the ureter or by reason of some malformation of the parts it occasionally happens that the calyces and pelvis renalis become dilated without perceptible inflammation of their walls; urinous or serous fluids collected in such a way, with their consequent lesions, are now known as hydronephrosis.1
Since the latter part of the 17th century this affection has been described under different names: first, by Rudolph and Franz, as hydrops renalis, then by Ruysch as expansis renum or hernia renalis, later by Johnson as hydrounal distension, still later by Rayer as hydronephrose.
The old anatomist Ruysch first had his attention called to this lesion through an anomaly observed while dissecting the kidneys of a sheep: so far as I know this is the earliest case on record, and perhaps, historically considered, worth translation from its monkish
STAPLES GA. HYDRONEPHROSIS. AN ESSAY BASED UPON THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SEVENTY-ONE CASES OF THAT LESION, OF WHICH ONE CASE CAME UNDER THE PERSONAL OBSERVATION OF THE WRITER. JAMA. 1884;II(15):393–402. doi:10.1001/jama.1884.04360020001001
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