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Article
August 23, 1884

A COMBINED VISUAL AND ASTIGMATIC TEST-CARD OF WORDS MADE UP OF LETTERS CONFUSING TO THE ASTIGMATIC EYE---REMARKS ON ASTIGMATISM, CHARACTERISTIC MANNERISMS.

Author Affiliations

PHILADELPHIA, PA.

JAMA. 1884;III(8):209-212. doi:10.1001/jama.1884.02390570013001a

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Abstract

Read in Section on Ophthalmology, Otology and Laryngology of the American Medical Association, May, 1884,

The influences of optical defects are three-fold; first, productive of vision less than normal; second, are productive of certain ocular diseases or render acute attacks of eye disease chronic by their presence; third, there are produced by their presence, headache, nervous symptoms, gastric disturbance, many cases of so-called biliousness and a chain of reflex symptoms due to the accommodative effort. Cases presenting a manifest defect of vision, seek relief by glasses, and are satisfied either partially or fully, as the manifest or total defect is corrected. In cases where ocular disease, or the form of trouble described under the third classification exists, accommodative effort may conceal the defect, which any of the mydriatics will expose and relieve the symptoms if they are the result of the optical condition of the eye; glasses are required to

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