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So much has been said and written about astigmatism that it would seem that nothing more of a practical nature could be added.
Before proceeding to the study of the function of the oblique muscles in certain forms of astigmatism, I would briefly review what has long been known. The rule, with many exceptions, is that astigmatism is due to the radius of curvature of the vertical meridian of the cornea being shorter than the radius of curvature of the horizontal meridian. The exceptions are that the meridian of greatest curvature may be horizontal or may be at any degree between the vertical and the horizontal. The meridian of least curvature is always at right angles to the meridian of greatest curvature. In hypermetropic astigmatism, whether simple or compound, the best meridian is usually vertical or within 45° of the vertical; in myopic astigmatism, as a rule, the best meridian
SAVAGE GC. THE FUNCTION OF THE OBLIQUE MUSCLES IN CERTAIN CASES OF ASTIGMATISM. Read in the Section on Ophthalmology and Otology, at the Thirty-Eighth Annual Meeting of the American Medical Association, June, 1887. JAMA. 1887;IX(19):589–591. doi:10.1001/jama.1887.02400180013001b
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