This paper is limited to the discussion of certain changes that are of common occurrence in the bladder of the female, and that are often so intractable to treatment as to warrant the query made some time since by one of my eminent surgical friends, "Did you ever know a permanent cure of chronic cystitis?"
The mucous membrane of the bladder is composed of epithelial cells, arranged in several layers. The deeper cells are round, conical, or cylindrical, but they change towards the surface, until the superficial layer is composed of flat, laminated cells, which may be always seen in normal urine. Mucous glands, simple and aggregated, lined with cylindrical epithelium, are found at the neck of the bladder and towards the fundus. This epithelial lining of the bladder is continuous into the urethra, and contains there numerous large glands, glands of Lithré. They are often 1 millimetre or more
MARCY HO. CYSTITIS IN THE FEMALE.Contributed to the Section on Obstetrics and Gynecology, at the Thirty-Eighth Annual Meeting of the American Medical Association, June, 1887.. JAMA. 1887;IX(26):801–803. doi:10.1001/jama.1887.02400250001001
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