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March 27, 1909


JAMA. 1909;LII(13):1020-1023. doi:10.1001/jama.1909.25420390016001d

In 1874 I commenced a systematic investigation to ascertain the character and determine the classification of deformities of the head, face, jaws and teeth, and I followed this by a study of the degenerate classes. Results of these researches have been published from time to time in medical and dental journals and are here summarized.

To the great anatomist, Camper, belongs the credit of first studying the human face from the scientific standpoint. His name, therefore, was given to the facial angle which still serves as a standard by which to judge lower animals. In one of his works he gives (Fig. 1) a physical observation on the difference of the feature of the rank of the human face in comparison with the face considered in profile, as the heads of apes, orangutans, of negroes and other peoples, tracing up to antique heads. He remarks that the reader will be

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