Since the demonstration of the infectious basis of gallstone formation we have had many contributions to our knowledge of their pathogenesis, chemistry and structure, which have cleared up this subject to a gratifying degree. Urinary calculi have, during the same period, received less attention from the pathologists and chemists. Just as Naunyn worked out the principles of gallstone formation to a satisfactory conclusion which has stood the test of time, so Ebstein, in his classical monograph on urinary concretions, developed many of the fundamental conceptions of this topic. He showed that the urinary calculi are not simple conglomerations of crystals, but possess an organic framework of characteristic structure, the product of pathologic processes in the urinary tract, in which the crystalline salts are imbedded and held together. Just what conditions are necessary for the production of this complex deposit in the urine has not yet been fully determined, but a
THE PATHOGENESIS OF URINARY CALCULI. JAMA. 1909;LII(22):1762–1763. doi:10.1001/jama.1909.02540480032007
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