The great impetus given to the study of the posterior urethra by the invention of the Goldschmidt irrigation urethroscope has aroused hopes that still further improvements in the method of seeing the neck of the bladder and the posterior urethra could be expected. About one year and a half ago I attempted to overcome some of the shortcomings of the Goldsehmidt and of other instruments by the employment of the Nitze type of indirect or right-angled telescope. By the adoption of an appropriate optical system and a new type of illumination I succeeded recently in constructing an instrument which gives a practically "normal" view of the trigone, neck of the bladder and posterior urethra. The shortcomings of the Goldschmidt instrument are well known. They are, briefly, a partial field, a distorted image and a large fenestra with its tendency to cause traumatism.
These have all been overcome
BUERGER L. A CYSTO-URETHROSCOPE. JAMA. 1910;LIV(13):1045–1046. doi:10.1001/jama.1910.92550390004002e
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