The ideal anesthesia includes four factors: (1) an induction, short, tranquil and not unpleasant to the patient; (2) a maintenance, surgical, even, featureless and so absolutely under control that it is but just deep enough each minute for the existing purpose; (3) a recovery, prompt and complete; (4) after-effects, nil, i. e., without symptoms, immediate or remote, in any organ, alimentary, respiratory, circulatory or excretory. It is true of every known method that as it approaches this ideal in some respects it recedes in some other; hence the need for adapting the anesthetic and its method of administration to the individual case, choosing the best combination of results attainable.
In the surgery of childhood
—not a new subject, but bound to receive more special attention—we are confronted, in anesthetics, with the pediatric problem of administering to an organism, embryonal in some degree, potent drugs to which it
PINNEO FW. ANESTHESIA BY PHARYNGEAL INSUFFLATION. JAMA. 1912;LIX(21):1862–1867. doi:10.1001/jama.1912.04270110276008
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