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The patient I present to you does not bear in his appearance the marks of active intelligence. He is an individual that never learned to read in his youth; he did his military service in a regiment of dragoons, and completed it, but still without learning to read. He drinks, but before analyzing with you this drinking tendency completely I beg you to examine the quite special attitude he presents when undressed.
Permit me in passing to recommend this examination of your patients. I know very often what is called propriety will interfere, especially when you have to do with women in investigations of this sort; but whenever it is permissible do not neglect it. The physician, much more than the painter or sculptor, should have precise ideas in regard to external conformations and attitudes. A painter that represents a muscular prominence where it does not normally exist certainly commits
CHARCOT JM. ON SCIATICA, NEURASTHENIA AND HYSTERIA. JAMA. 1889;XII(7):228–230. doi:10.1001/jama.1889.02400840012003
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