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Of the various diseases the gynecologist is called upon to treat but few have offener proved more vexatious or intractable than chronic cystitis. After a careful study of the pathology and histology of this peculiar condition several factors appear to comprise, to a greater or lesser extent, either singly, variously or remotely, its etiology. The lesions or morbid processes giving rise to cystitis, whether in the acute or chronic stage, are numerous. Each case should be considered according to its own history and peculiar indications. In the consideration of the subject of cystitis it is well to keep in mind the structure and anatomical relations of the mucous membrane of the bladder. Reference to the character and arrangement of the epithelial cells shows that there are several layers. The deeper layers are composed of cells that are conical or cylindrical in appearance. The superficial layer of the mucous membrane is
CLARKE AP. CHRONIC CYSTITIS IN THE FEMALE. Read in the Section of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women at the Fortieth Annual Meeting of the American Medical Association, June, 1889. JAMA. 1890;XIV(14):499–501. doi:10.1001/jama.1890.02410140015002b
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