About seven years ago, I began the surgical treatment of constipation of mechanical origin due to such conditions, for example, as displacements, malformations, adhesions, angulations, plications, dilatations, atrophies and various distortions of the intestines. The general conditions calling for operative correction of the intestines were not so much the constipation itself as the constitutional states that were caused by the constipation. Or, going a step further back in the chain of etiologic sequence, it became evident that the toxic state of the system, the word "toxic" being used in its original and broad sense, must have originated in the intestines either through (a) deleterious additions to the food before ingestion, or (b) as the result of secondary chemical changes in the food after ingestion, or (c) as the consequence of bacterial activity in either the normal or adventitious flora of the intestinal tract, or (d) as the result of the
REED CAL. THE PROBABLE CAUSE AND LOGICAL TREATMENT OF EPILEPSY: A PRELIMINARY REPORT. JAMA. 1915;LXIV(13):1047–1050. doi:10.1001/jama.1915.02570390007003
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