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Article
October 28, 1893

SOME PRACTICAL EXPERIENCES WITH MUSCULAR ANOMALIES.Read in the Section on Ophthalmology at the Forty-fourth Annual Meeting of the American Medical Association.

JAMA. 1893;XXI(18):642-646. doi:10.1001/jama.1893.02420700010001f

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Abstract

I consider the Maddox rod the most valuable and reliable test for heterophoria that we possess. Until I became acquainted with it I often had much trouble in arriving at any satisfactory conclusion as to the muscular tendencies. Since its introduction diagnosis is in most instances made easy.

The Graefe test is perplexing and unreliable in determining small errors in the lateral, and espe cially, in the vertical plane, the latter being extremely important even to so small an amount as half of a degree, which amount, and even less, the rod test will quickly recognize. The phorometer of Prince is a most convenient and ready application of the rod test, and is extremely satisfactory in detecting any error less than four degrees. While far more accurate than any methods heretofore possessed for measuring the muscular balance, the rod test is not absolutely reliable owing to certain physiological laws resident

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