The etiology of rheumatism has attained a new position in the last few years, and to Alfred Mantle, consulting physician to the Royal Halifax Infirmary, Harrogate, England, should be credited the first work leading to change of position concerning the etiology of this disease. When he commenced his work, bacteriology was in its infancy. At a meeting of the British Medical Association which was held at Brighton, he read a paper in the section of medicine, presided over by the late Sir William Broadbent, the title being, "The Etiology of Rheumatism Considered from a Bacteriological Point of View,"1 at which time he demonstrated the organisms he had found both macroscopically in culture and microscopically.
Even prior to that time, Mantle had discussed the frequency of rheumatic symptoms in scarlatina.2 His observations in this paper suggested that the throat, joints, and serous membranes become infected during bacterial invasion, and
HARTZELL TB. THE CLINICAL TYPE OF ARTHRITIS ORIGINATING ABOUT THE TEETH. JAMA. 1915;LXV(13):1093–1097. doi:10.1001/jama.1915.02580130025007
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