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August 5, 1911

THE OCULAR CONJUGATE AND FUSION BRAIN CENTERS: ONLY TWO AXES OF OCULAR ROTATIONS, AND ONLY TWO PLANES OF REFERENCE

Author Affiliations

Professor of Ophthalmology (Defects of the Eye), Medical Department, Vanderbilt University NASHVILLE, TENN.

JAMA. 1911;LVII(6):467-470. doi:10.1001/jama.1911.04260080031009
Abstract

In my investigations, some years ago, I saw the importance of finding a larger number of brain centers for the control of the ocular muscles than had been given in any list of these centers published up to that time. I not only found that there must be conjugate centers whose existence had never been announced, but that there must also be fusion centers. To the old list of conjugate centers I added six additional members; the sixth, the Seventh, the eighth, the ninth,the tenth and the eleventh. The first, second, third, fourth and fifth conjugate centers had already been recognized, and Maddox had said "probably more." In addition to the six conjugate centers added to the original number, I found that there must be a fusion also center for every individual extrinsic muscle, and also an individual center for each ciliary muscle and for each sphincter of the iris.

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