For purposes of this paper, I shall divide surgical operations into two general classes: first, operations Performed on patients in fair fair general health; second; injury or disease. Belonging to the first class are: laparotomies for benign tumors of the uterus and ovaries,simple gastro-enterostomies, appendectomies, unoperations on patients whose vitality is impaired by complicated operations on the gall-bladder, the kidneys and the urinary bladder, uncomplicated herniotomies, excision of cancer of the breast, excision of benign tumors of thethyroid and simple goiters; in these the operative mortality has all but disappeared. Among 10,723 surgical operations performed by me, 4,127 belonged to this class; among these there was one death in 375 operations. There is but little advantage, therefore in any discussion of this group of cases so far as the immediate risk is concerned; but while the immediate risk is slight, these operations still bear a certain stigma, viz., a temporary nervous
CRILE GW. NEWER METHODS FOR FURTHER INCREASING THE SAFETY OF SURGICAL OPERATIONS. JAMA. 1911;LVII(23):1811–1814. doi:10.1001/jama.1911.04260120001001
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