The following are, in my opinion, the essential features of a practical working esophagoscope:
1. Simplicity of construction.
2. Ease of introduction without an obturator.
3. The source of illumination must be as near the object to be examined as possible, and so arranged that when instruments are introduced into the tube, the rays of light are not intercepted.
4. By some simple contrivance that can be easily operated the field of operation must be kept constantly dry, in order to enable the surgeon to work rapidly, thus reducing the length of the sitting to a minimum.
I have made several hundred esophagoscopies and have tried different instruments with the various methods of illumination, at the proximal as well as at the distal end of the tube. I have also done some experimental work in this line, and the esophagoscope that I here present as an improved instrument has features
LERCHE W. AN IMPROVED ESOPHAGOSCOPE. JAMA. 1912;LVIII(9):619–620. doi:10.1001/jama.1912.04260030019006
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