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August 26, 1905


Author Affiliations


JAMA. 1905;XLV(9):611-613. doi:10.1001/jama.1905.52510090033001h

I believe that the non-toxic amblyopias can be better studied if considered under three heads: 1. Those cases of amblyopia exanopsia due, as is usually believed, to the inability to use corresponding areas of the retina at the same time. This may be due to high refractive errors, to improper balance of the extraocular muscles, or to a non-development of the fusion center in the cerebrum.

2. That large group characterized by irregularly contracted but constant fields, impaired vision with careful tests, often only perceiving moving objects, but never interfering with locomotion or similar acts, frequently monocular diplopia, etc., etc., and known as the hysterical amblyopias.

3. That similar but sufficiently different group to justify their place in a separate class, characterized by impaired vision, contracted fields for white and colors always retaining their normal relationships, i. e., no reversal, and being proportionate to the visual acuity; these cases are

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