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August 26, 1905

EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL EVIDENCE OF DYNAMIC (SPASTIC) ASTIGMATISM.

JAMA. 1905;XLV(9):613-617. doi:10.1001/jama.1905.52510090035001i
Abstract

Dynamic astigmatism may be defined as a condition of the eye due to dynamic changes in its media which prevent homocentric rays from being brought to a focus on the retina.

That such dynamic changes occur there is a preponderance of evidence and opinion on the part of Javal,1 Georges Martin,2 Landolt,3 Dobrowolsky,4 Oliver,5 Noyes6 Panas7 and others. Among authors who deny this condition I note only Bull8 and Tscherning.9 The authors in the first group, while stating briefly a belief in the existence of the condition, are nearly all silent as to its clinical significance, implying, apparently, indifference to it in this respect.

As far as I know, no one has gone so carefully and exhaustively into the subjective phenomena pointing to dynamic astigmatic contractions as Georges Martin10 of Bordeaux, who published a series of papers entitled "Etudes sur

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