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October 28, 1905


JAMA. 1905;XLV(18):1319-1323. doi:10.1001/jama.1905.52510180035002g

Norris has made general and elaborate classifications of these conditions, which are, in substance, as follows:

Class 1.  —Delayed union, callus forms and union is not rendered complete by ossification.

Class 2.  —Entire want of union, the ends of the bones are diminished in size, there is motion between the fragments and the limit of this motion is usually small.

Class 3.  —With fragments small, rounded off, tapering and bound together by fibrous bands.

Class 4.  —Pseudarthrosis; a dense capsule seems to form around the ends of the bones; on opening this a fluid is found resembling synovial fluid. The ends are eburnated.By referring to numerous authors along about the fifties, I found a few notes in regard to the causation of ununited fractures. The principal ones correspond very clearly to our present ideas, and I am sure that this quotation from Velpeau places him and his opinion on

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