Dionin is ethyl-morphin hydrochlorate, and was discovered by Grimaux (C19 H23 NO3 HCl+H2O). It is a white, odorless, bitter powder, soluble in water, 7 parts; in alcohol, 1.5; in syrup, 20. It is insoluble in ether and chloroform. The aqueous solution is neutral in reaction and keeps a long time. The general physiologic action is similar to that of morphin, but it is claimed that it is less toxic and does not produce nausea, constipation or habit. The respiratory and cardiac centers are unaffected. Applied to the eye, either as a solution or powder, it produces marked sneezing, vasodilation, edema, glandular excitation, burning and lachrymation and supposedly lymphatic extravasation, followed by analgesia, lasting from 2 to 48 hours. Wolffberg1 of Breslau first used it in ophthalmic practice, but it was Darier's2 report that brought it prominently before the profession.
The general literature on the
SNYDER WH. THE PHYSIOLOGIC ACTION OF DIONIN. JAMA. 1905;XLV(21):1562–1564. doi:10.1001/jama.1905.52510210032002f
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