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Article
September 25, 1897

SURGERY ONE HUNDRED YEARS AGO.AN HISTORICAL STUDY

JAMA. 1897;XXIX(13):629-631. doi:10.1001/jama.1897.02440390019002h

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Abstract

XIII.—GERMAN MEDICINE.  Leibnitz; University of Halle; Thomasius, Wolff, Franke; System of Medicine by Hoffmann and Stahl; Boerhaave; Haller; Gaub; Vienna School: van Swieten, de Haën, Störck, Stoll; Neurologic pathology, Unzer; Humor pathologists Ch. L. Hofmann and Kämpf; Classification of diseases; Study of the ancients; System of J. Brown; Realization of Chemistry and physicians; Special pathology; Remedies; Medical practitioners.When the German churches announced the eighteenth century, a warm, quickening spring sun shone in Hanover and Halle, newly vivifying the German sciences. Leibnitz there created German philosophy. He taught the Germans to think independently and to develop their sciences philosophically. Here were professors of the young University, who, as leaders in the movement, restored the mother tongue to scholars, made the ideas of the great philosophy popular, aroused the flat crude Protestantism and revolutionized German medicine. Leibnitz unified the inexhaustable depths of mathematic, philosophic, physical and historic knowledge, with a strong

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