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In no class of surgical cases is there demanded the mechanical skill, the anatomic knowledge and the perseverance that is required in the treatment of fractures. It has, at all times, received close attention and careful study; yet it is perfectly evident, from the great number of cases which so frequently tax our ability to the utmost, and are followed not only by unsightly deformities, but by poor functional results, that a decided change from the heretofore conservative methods of treatment is necessary in many cases if perfect approximation of the fractured ends of the bone and good functional results are desired.
Since the introduction of the x-ray as a means of diagnosis, the difficulty of complete reduction and perfect approximation of the fragments is shown, and masses of bone, which were formerly termed "exuberant callus," prove to be due to the displacement of the fractured ends and comminution of
KELLY JA. THE OPERATIVE TREATMENT OF FRACTURES. JAMA. 1906;XLVI(2):103–108. doi:10.1001/jama.1906.62510290023001e
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