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November 9, 1895


JAMA. 1895;XXV(19):786-789. doi:10.1001/jama.1895.02430450002001a

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The object of the present paper is not to put on record a few occasional cases of hysterical affections of ocular muscles, but to present what I believe to be a not uncommon type of functional disease, viz., asthenopia with insufficiency of convergence as a hysterical manifestation. In speaking of insufficient convergence, I do not wish this anomaly to be identified with exophoria. The former condition can exist, as some of my cases show, without any tendency to divergence of the eyes for distance, while exophoria itself can sometimes occur without much reduction of convergence. But for obvious reasons the two anomalies are often associated.

The converging power can be called insufficient only, if the eyes can not converge up to the normal limit in the absence of either paralysis or strabismic shortening of any of the eye muscles. The simplest and only direct way of measuring the amplitude of

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