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February 13, 1897


JAMA. 1897;XXVIII(7):291-294. doi:10.1001/jama.1897.02440070005001a

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The time was when women brought forth her offspring with pain and suffering, without the presence of midwife or physician; but from the beginning the process has been accompanied by dangers to the mothers and more or less mortality among the children. Although we lack full statistics it can safely be asserted that among the uncivilized peoples (those wholly uninfluenced by civilization) the rate of infant mortality is far less, during labor, than it is at the same time among the civilized peoples. This may seem at first a broad statement, but by comparing the two classes of peoples we can easily find sufficient causes to warrant the assertion.

Man, in the first stages of his existence, was semi, or wholly, barbarous. From that state of being he has gradually grown through the successive stages of civilization to the highest type of human possibility at the present time, a refined

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