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The history of medical advance from the empirical treatment of symptoms to scientific expectancy, has been based on the study of death and modern research work. The spirit has been fine, although somewhat pessimistic. The great advances have been along the line of preventive medicine and in the elucidation of problems connected with the etiology of disease.
Surgical progress has been, to a certain extent, through similar channels; the spirit, however, has been one of magnificent optimism. The great advances in surgery have come from the clinical side, modern technic having enabled examination of primary conditions during life.
As a groundwork for the study of medicine the pathologic laboratory and autopsy room offer unrivaled advantage, but they teach end results only. Who of us has not admired the precision with which a trained observer makes a diagnosis? A few days later one visits the
MAYO WJ. THE ASSOCIATION OF SURGICAL LESIONS IN THE UPPER ABDOMEN.ORATION ON SURGERY AT THE FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL SESSION OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, AT ATLANTIC CITY, JUNE 7 TO 10, 1904. JAMA. 1904;XLII(24):1545–1549. doi:10.1001/jama.1904.92490690013002a
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