From articles which have appeared in the medical journals during the past year emanating from centers of medical education, it would seem as if the query propounded above was susceptible of widely varying answers, and that there was no unanimity of opinion on this question among American surgeons.
By suspicious tumors are meant, not clearly diagnosable carcinomata or cysts, but small, hard tumors in women over 40, which may be early carcinomata, adenofibromata, single tense cysts or the earlier cysts of a chronic cystic mastitis.
All surgeons must frequently have to decide this question of how to best surgically treat a small doubtful tumor in a woman past the menopause, and many must err either in doing an unnecessarily large operation on the one hand, or, far worse, in failing to recognize malignancy and by too conservative work favoring prompt recurrence.
What is needed is an acceptable exploratory procedure which will allow exposure and macroscopic, and, if need
STEWART J. WHAT IS THE PROPER SURGICAL TREATMENT OF SUSPICIOUS TUMORS OF THE INVOLUTING BREAST?. JAMA. 1904;XLIII(6):365–369. doi:10.1001/jama.1904.92500060001
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