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CONGENITAL ERRORS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE KIDNEYS AND THEIR ADNEXA.
There are many errors in the development of the kidneys which are of great surgical and pathologic interest. Most of these errors are easily explainable by the remarkable evolutions which attend the development of the urinary apparatus. If any one doubts the utility of a careful study of this subject, let him contemplate the feelings of the surgeon who has removed the only kidney a patient possessed, or of one who has explored the loin and found no kidney below the supra-renal capsule.Congenital errors in the development of the kidney occur with about the same frequency as do malformations elsewhere in the body. In 13,478 autopsies, one kidney was entirely absent in 4 cases, and atrophic in 59 cases. Klebs places the ratio of the absence of the right kidney to that of the left as 7:2, while
HOLMES B. SURGERY OF THE KIDNEY. BEING A STUDY OF A SERIES OF CASES IN WHICH METHODS OF DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT ARE ILLUSTRATED. JAMA. 1897;XXVIII(17):769–773. doi:10.1001/jama.1897.02440170003001a
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