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The dura mater, histologically speaking, is composed of two distinct membranes, the external being a dense fibrous membrane lining closely the interior of the calvarium; the inner surface is smooth, lined with epithelium and is a serous membrane. The dura mater is therefore a fibro-serous membrane; externally fibrous, internally serous. The latter is more intimately connected with the brain structure. In keeping with these anatomic facts each layer is subject to somewhat different pathologic conditions. The inner layer of the dura is far less frequently diseased than the outer; a chronic, simple inflammation of the latter may exist for an indefinite period prior to death.
It is frequently observed, as in case number one, in making autopsies, that it is difficult or impossible to remove the calvarium without considerable force, and often laceration of the dura is the result. In these cases the dura is firmly adherent to the calvarium
BELL S. SOME CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS OF MENINGEAL COMPLICATIONS, FOLLOWED BY DEATH AND POSTMORTEM EXAMINATIONS. JAMA. 1897;XXVIII(18):827–830. doi:10.1001/jama.1897.02440180013002b
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