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As matter is known only by its properties, so life is known only through its functions and other manifestations. Its state or condition is judged from these. It often happens that by concussion and other forms of shock, by submersion in water or other fluid, by smothering and other modes of suffocation and strangulation, by extreme debility and exhaustion, by exposure to cold or heat, by starvation, by the influence of various narcotics and anesthetics, by sudden influence of grief, surprise, fear or other passion, and very notably, by the failure of a prompt occurrence of breathing of the fetus when it comes from the mother, a state of apparent death (call it obscured or depressed life if you choose) is presented. This state has been variously called drowning, asphyxia, syncope, apnea, etc. On proper examination it will be found that the functions of life which are in abeyance in
McDANIEL ED. THE RELATION OF PHYSIOLOGIC PRINCIPLES TO ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION. JAMA. 1898;XXX(7):358–362. doi:10.1001/jama.1898.72440590018001e
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