[Skip to Content]
[Skip to Content Landing]
April 1, 1905

Special ArticleIMMUNITY.

JAMA. 1905;XLIV(13):1031-1034. doi:10.1001/jama.1905.02500400035002


THE PHENOMENON OF AGGLUTINATION.  Agglutination, in the bacteriologic sense, refers to the clumping and sedimentation of micro-organisms from a homogeneous suspension by the action of a serum. This is the socalled Gruber-Widal reaction.Specificity.A number of investigators had already seen that serums would often cause the clumping of bacteria, but Gruber and Durham first saw the significance of the phenomenon. They saw that only certain serums would agglutinate a particular bacterium, that the reaction was a specific one, and that the serum which would cause the strongest agglutination of a microorganism was that of an animal which had been made immune to it by repeated injections.Widal and Grunbaum.Widal's service consisted in the utilization of the phenomenon as an aid in the diagnosis of typhoid fever. He is the originator of clinical serum diagnosis. It is perhaps largely a matter of accident that we speak of