Our knowledge of diseases of the pancreas, apart from neoplasms, is of comparatively recent origin, but enough has been learned to place them therapeutically in the category of surgical disorders. The etiology of these affections is exceedingly obscure, the causative factors in some instances no doubt being bacterial, while in others they are with even greater certainty chemical. In yet another group of cases, arteriosclerosis and atheroma are the underlying factors. The exciting agents may be conveyed through the blood stream or through the ducts of the pancreas. The inflammation to which they give rise under these circumstances may be hemorrhagic, suppurative or gangrenous. The resulting symptoms are often suggestive of intestinal obstruction, with constipation, severe abdominal pain and distention and vomiting. The expression becomes anxious and pinched, and the skin and conjunctiva may assume a yellowish tint. The pulse is small and rapid, while the temperature is irregular and
THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE HEMORRHAGIC PANCREATITIS.. JAMA. 1905;XLIV(17):1372–1373. doi:10.1001/jama.1905.02500440048008
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