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November 1, 1902


JAMA. 1902;XXXIX(18):1106-1114. doi:10.1001/jama.1902.52480440026001f

In 1893 at the meeting of the Ophthalmic Section of the Pan-American Medical Congress, when operative treatment of heterophoria was universally practiced by American oculists,1 I ventured to say that it seemed to me unphysiologic, unnecessary, without analogy in the treatment of similar incoördinations elsewhere in the body, requiring an impossible delicacy of execution, without definite prognosis, and unsatisfactory in result. In the Medical News of Oct. 14, 1893, and Nov. 18, 1893, I stated more fully my reasons for the extempore statements, and the methods I had found successful instead of tenotomies, graduate, undergraduate or postgraduate. I think that there are to-day extremely few tenotomies performed for heterophoria, in comparison with the thousands that were being performed.

Following the reaction against the operative furore in heterophoria there has arisen a wise restraint in operations for strabismus.2 As I have nothing to recant concerning the absolute inutility of