The ideal position of lenses, when there is perfect muscle adjustment of the eyes, is such that the visual axes may cut their optical centers, and that the planes of the lenses may be parallel with the equatorial planes of the eyes. When the visual axes cut the optical centers of the lenses there can be no prismatic effect; and when the plane of the lens is parallel with the equatorial plane of the eye there can be no cylindrical effect. A want of parallelism between the plane of the lens and the equatorial plane of the eye means that there will be a cylindrical effect, for, as is well known, the strength of the lens, at right angles to the axis of tilting, is increased, while along the axis of tilting its power is unchanged. Tilting a lens 45 degrees practically doubles its refractive power for the rays that
SAVAGE GC. THE DECENTERING OF LENSES FOR NEAR WORK.. JAMA. 1902;XXXIX(21):1294–1296. doi:10.1001/jama.1902.52480470004002
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