The present contribution results from studies on young criminals made during 1895-96 at the State reformatories at Pontiac, Ill., and Elmira, New York. The investigation concerns especially the stigmata of the head and face. The stature and weight were noted, but other anthropometric data were not specially considered, as measurements had to be entrusted to others. It was therefore deemed advisable to avoid as far as possible elements of error concomitant on extensive detailed anthropometry. Only simple measurements easily obtained with accuracy were made. Inasmuch as facial and cranial development are, as a rule, most directly co-related with moral and intellectual evolution it was deemed natural that they should furnish sufficient data for discussion in an article of the present scope.
Since the inquiry dealt only with the physical stigmata of the head and face, the youngest inmates were, for obvious reasons (immature jaw and face development) excluded from consideration.
TALBOT ES. A STUDY OF THE STIGMATA OF DEGENERACY AMONG THE AMERICAN CRIMINAL YOUTH. JAMA. 1898;XXX(15):849–856. doi:10.1001/jama.1898.72440670037002j
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