Skiagraphy for medical purposes was especially advanced and perfected in America. Calculous deposits were especially attractive for x-ray diagnosis. McArthur, Bevan, Leonard and others four years ago showed the necessity of skiagraphs in all suspected cases of renal stone. Our method, now to be described, will perfect the knowledge of the topography of the kidney and ureter, the location of calculi and aid in important differential diagnoses. A conservative and plastic surgery of kidneys and ureters has lately made such progress and achieved such good results—we refer especially to Fenger and McArthur cases—that the absence of such diagnostic measures was the stimulus for our work. To a limited extent the different methods of collecting urine from each kidney and the cystoscopic observation of the ureteral openings has satisfied this desire. Skiagraphs frequently show the kidney-shaped shadow of the kidney while the representation of the ureters on the plate naturally
KOLISCHER G, SCHMIDT LE. NEW METHOD OF SKIAGRAPHIC DIAGNOSIS FOR RENAL AND URETERAL SURGERY. JAMA. 1901;XXXVII(19):1228–1237. doi:10.1001/jama.1901.62470450008001b
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