Had I chosen my own title I should have omitted the word "non-surgical," because in my practice I have concluded that there is no surgical treatment, properly speaking; and that any operative treatment whatever of heterophoria is not only useless but bad. For, not only does it not cure, but, in my experience, it makes real cure far more difficult, sometimes even impossible. I say, "in my experience," which is in private practice, with intelligent and co-operating patients. In hospital practice there may be rare cases in which operation is required. For six years I have seen no case of heterophoria needing operation, and none unsatisfactory when treated with common sense instead of with scissors. Of course, if the scissorer's design is to create mental effects in the patient and financial ones in both patient and doctor, that does not lie in the province of medicine, and we may look
GOULD GM. THE NON-SURGICAL TREATMENT OF HETEROPHORIA.. JAMA. 1901;XXXVII(21):1359–1361. doi:10.1001/jama.1901.62470470001001
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