On what cases of heterophoria should we operate? On what muscle should the operation be done? What kind of operation should be done? These are all questions that should be answered by the operator before undertaking this class of work. Certainly, an innervational heterophoria should never be operated upon. A pseudoesophoria is always curable by convex glasses. A pseudoexophoria is likewise curable by concave glasses. There are cases that present themselves now and then in whom there is a want of convergence innervation, i. e., there seems to be a fault in the third conjugate innervation. This condition, as a rule, should be treated by exercise, though occasionally an operation must be done.
No operation should be done in cases of heterophoria, intrinsic in character, that can be relieved by gymnastic exercise, even though this treatment should have to be resorted to for a long while. Nor should those cases
SAVAGE GC. THE OPERATIVE TREATMENT OF HETEROPHORIA. JAMA. 1901;XXXVII(21):1361–1366. doi:10.1001/jama.1901.62470470003001a
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