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November 23, 1901


Author Affiliations
Assistant Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology at Rush Medical College (University of Chicago).; Assistant Clinical Professor of Neurology at Rush Medical College (University of Chicago). CHICAGO.
JAMA. 1901;XXXVII(21):1380-1385. doi:10.1001/jama.1901.62470470022001f

The retina receives an inverted image of objects as they are related in the outer world. That this is so is proven by all text-books of optics1 and accepted by all text-books of physiology.2 But the fact that we do perceive objects in their normal relations, although equally undisputed, has been the subject of many theories, both fanciful and serious, since the modern scientific world has been dominated by inductive philosophy. One of the earliest explanations was that of retinal function by which the retina itself projects in a certain direction only the image received upon it, and is connected by one particular nerve fiber with the brain in such a way that the brain connection of the upper retinal element lies below, that of the lower above, that of the right to the left and of the left to the right, so that the image is reinverted