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In the early history of gynecology the real pioneers had not only the scientific knowledge to attain, but principles to practically apply, means and methods to adopt without the aid of precedents or the counsel of fellow practitioners. It has always been difficult to perfect and establish a procedure.
McDowell operated with a mob at his door. Nineteen and ten years before McDowell's operation, William Bainham did two successful operations for ectopie pregnancy. Doubtless the success of Bainham's operation greatly influenced McDowell and was inspiration in his own heroic and successful work. Yet notwithstanding this success there was a suspension of the operation for a quarter of a century. Not again was the operation resorted to until 1843. Then by John Light Atlee of Lancaster, Pa., and John Clay of Manchester, England. To the extent to which these pioneers carried their work, we have in our own work, without material
PRICE J. CHAIRMAN'S ADDRESS. JAMA. 1898;XXXI(10):500–503. doi:10.1001/jama.1898.92450100001001a
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