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If a multiplicity of methods is an indication of unsatisfactory results, nephropexy must be the least satisfactory operation known to the surgeon. Dozens of methods have been exploited, each with a claim of superiority, but all based on four cardinal principles.
1. In April, 1881, Hahn reported his first cases of nephrorraphy for movable kidney. The sutures were passed through the fibrous capsule proper, the kidney being fastened to the edges of the deeper structures of the lumbar wound. Many slight modifications of this method have been made, but the principle of all has been the same as that originally used by Professor Hahn.
2. The method of decortication. Tuffier was the first to practice this method. He dissects off a portion of the posterior surface and convex border of the proper capsule of the kidney, and the organ is held into the wound by sutures, thus obtaining direct union
DAVIS BB. NEW METHOD OF ANCHORING THE KIDNEY— A PRELIMINARY REPORT.. JAMA. 1902;XXXVIII(19):1208–1210. doi:10.1001/jama.1902.62480190014001c
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