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With the passing of the ophthalmoscope from the exclusive use of the oculist, the cases and causes of hemorrhage into the retina have greatly multiplied. The underlying etiologic factors have become of interest to all, regardless of specialism; for the affection may occur in the practice of the surgeon and gynecologist as well as in that of the oculist and the devotee to internal medicine. It may come without warning and indeed without apparent sufficient justification, or cautions in the way of constitutional disease may have existed for years. It is no respector of age, nor are either of the sexes favored to any extent; for an increase on the one hand due to obstetric and gynecologic causes is equalized on the other by the greater prevalence of arteriosclerosis and injuries among males. In size it may be barely discernible or may involve the retina in its entirety. There may
RETINAL HEMORRHAGE. JAMA. 1898;XXXI(10):542–544. doi:10.1001/jama.1898.02450100052008
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