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June 14, 1902


JAMA. 1902;XXXVIII(24):1582. doi:10.1001/jama.1902.02480240032012

The old idea that ice is purified frozen water receives considerable substantiation through recent investigations. Researches on this subject which were begun in 1888-89 under the direction of the Massachusetts State Board of Health1 and concluded in 1899-1900, demonstrate the mechanical influence of crystallization in purifying water. Experiments in the physics of freezing natural or artificial ice show the tendency which there is for substances in either solution or suspension in the water to be thrown out of the forming ice. So far as bacteria are concerned it seems these researches show that when the freezing begins at the top, as in the case of winter ice, and does not go to the bottom 90 per cent. and upwards of the bacteria are eliminated. But in ice which includes all of the water, as in shallow pools or in artificial ice, all of the bacteria present are, of course,