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This operation was known as long ago as the year of the discovery of America, having been performed at that time, according to some authorities, on Pope Innocent VIII. It was not used to any extent, however, until the beginning of the present century, while it has only been of late years that its value in its various modifications has become very widely recognized. At first performed only for dangerous loss of blood, it has in addition proved most valuable in shock, in uremic and diabetic coma, and in the various affections accompanied by sepsis. During the infancy of the operation, direct transfusion of blood from vessel to vessel was practiced, but this was soon discarded on account of its great difficulties and danger, and some bland and harmless solution was substituted. For when blood was transfused, thrombotic and embolic processes were of common occurrence and often resulted disastrously. In
VALUE OF TRANSFUSION. JAMA. 1898;XXXI(27):1577–1578. doi:10.1001/jama.1898.02450270029006
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