The dangerous hemorrhages of the chest that more frequently give the surgeon an opportunity for the application of direct hemostasis are those resulting from parietal, pulmonary and diaphragmatic wounds. Hemorrhages from the aorta and its large intrathoracic branches, the heart, the pulmonary arteries and veins before they penetrate the hilum, the venæ cavæ and venæ azygos are promptly fatal, especially if due to gunshot wounds. These are the chief causes of the great and unavoidable mortality from chest wound on the battle-field. From the surgical or operative point of view they need not be considered, as the patients die, as a rule, before they can be reached; though to this rule the records show some remarkable exceptions.1
It is more than probable, as shown by recent reports, that more frequent and successful attempts will be made in the future to relieve the stab and punctured wounds of the heart
MATAS R. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF PERFORATING AND BLEEDING WOUNDS OF THE CHEST. JAMA. 1899;XXXII(13):687–692. doi:10.1001/jama.1899.92450400005001a
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