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In 1872, while attending medical lectures in New York, I witnessed an operation by Dr. Emmett for the relief of cystitis, which consisted in the formation and temporary maintenance of a vesicovaginal fistula. The proceeding at that time seemed to me a very radical one, but he stated that every other means of relieving the distressing trouble had been tried and had failed; hence the operation. He added that such cases yielded to the operation, if the fistula was not allowed to close too soon. This made a deep impression on my mind, as at that time the gynecologic fad was the closure of vesicovaginal fistulæ. This operation of Dr. Emmett was recalled to my mind when, in examining one of the latest works on surgery for light upon a case of vesical calculus in a female, I found the statement that some unknown surgeon had advised a very unscientific
HAPPEL TJ. VESICAL CALCULUS IN THE FEMALE.WITH A REPORT OF FOUR CASES.. JAMA. 1899;XXXII(18):969–970. doi:10.1001/jama.1899.92450450003001b