The phenomenon of life, and the interesting features grouped around it—whether examined in relation to either of the subkingdoms, vertebrates or invertebrates, constituting the animal kingdom, or to the vegetable world—while furnishing a wide scope for physiologic research, offers matter for serious and thoughtful speculation. It would be impossible to underrate the diligence with which questions of great import relative to vital phenomena have been examined by the earlier biologists, and the results attained; and because many of their conclusions have of late years been demonstrated to be inaccurate, none the less must their labors be appreciated. Such conclusions, however, must be considered in the light of cruces, which brought about the evolution of physiologic research. Aristotle, in his great work on anatomy, wrote concerning partes simulares et dissimulares, and years afterward, Fallopius discussed the nature of tissues; yet the ideas of these philosophers on tissues, especially those of the
SMITH J. THE EVOLUTION OF THE ANIMAL CELL.. JAMA. 1900;XXXIV(16):962–967. doi:10.1001/jama.1900.24610160004001a
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