Five cases of obstruction of the inferior vena cava were observed. This condition is most commonly caused by thrombophlebitis. It is usually associated with only mild symptoms and signs, since collateral circulation is abundant and competent. Occasionally, however, the obstruction may cause edema of the leg, varicosities, dilatation of the superficial abdominal veins, varicocele, and hemorrhoids, and may even be fatal when the occlusion extends proximal to the renal veins. A definite diagnosis of occlusion can be made only by inferior vena cavography.
Berlin L, Waldman I, Fong JK. Occlusion of the Inferior Vena Cava: A Major Roentgenographic Abnormality With Minor Clinical Manifestations. JAMA. 1965;194(9):984–986. doi:10.1001/jama.1965.03090220040010
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